In this tutorial, we will explain “what is molar mass”. You will learn how to find the molar mass, and calculate the molar mass for elements and molecules. If you enjoy this article, be sure to check out our other tutorials linked below.
- Quantifying Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
- How to Write Electron Shell Configurations
- Lewis Dot Structures
- Isotope Abundance and Average Atomic Mass
- Molar mass: The sum of atomic weight in a molecule. It is sometimes referred to as molecular weight.
- Compounds: Contains atoms of different elements that are combined at a fixed ratio.
- Ex. NaCl
- Molecules: Neutral group of atoms chemically bonded together.
- Ex. O3, NaCl
- Molecular formula: A way of presenting a molecule that shows the proportions of atoms.
- Ex. NH3 H2O2
What is Molar Mass?
The definition of molar mass is simply the number of grams that one “mole” of a substance weighs. Another definition of molar mass, is the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms that make up a molecule. Both definitions will give you the same result, when calculating the molar mass of a molecule.
A “mole” of a substance is defined as 6.022 x 1023 atoms or molecules of that substance. 1023 is a one with 23 zeroes after it. That’s a heck of a lot of molecules, which is why the molar mass of table salt (sodium chloride) is a respectable 58.44 grams per mole, quite a large handful.
The units of molar mass is grams per mole, often abbreviated g/mol.
How to Calculate Molar Mass
How do you find the molar mass of a compound? Molar mass can be calculated by using the periodic table and following three simple steps. It should be noted that this number is an average and therefore may vary due to isotopic elements. Let’s look at some examples of calculating the molar mass of different molecules.
Molar Mass of Ammonia NH3 – Step 1:
The first step for calculating molar mass is to identify all the elements in a given molecule and write their atomic masses using the periodic table. The atomic mass is equal to the atomic number which is listed below the element symbol. For example, if we are trying to find the molar mass of ammonia (NH3), then we need to find the atomic masses for nitrogen and hydrogen. Using the periodic table, we should get:
- Nitrogen: 14.01
- Hydrogen: 1.01
The second step is to determine how much of each element is present in the compound. According to the molecular formula (NH3), there is one nitrogen and three hydrogens present. So, now we will multiply these numbers by their corresponding atomic masses. It should look like this:
- Nitrogen: 14.01g X 1= 14.01g
- Hydrogen: 1.01g X 3= 3.02g
The last and final step is to add up the two products we got from multiplying. For ammonia, we should get a molar mass of 17.04 grams. Moreover, this means that 1 mole of NH3 is equal to 17.04 grams of NH3.
- Nitrogen: 14.01g X 1= 14.01g
- Hydrogen: 1.01g X 3= 3.03g
- Nitrogen and hydrogen: 14.01 + 3.03 = 17.04 g/mol
Carbon Dioxide CO2 Molar Mass
Molar mass of carbon + 2 X (molar mass of oxygen) = 12.01 + 2 X (16.00) = 44.01 grams / mole for the molar mass of carbon dioxide CO2
Molar Mass of Water H2O
2 X (Molar mass of hydrogen) + Molar mass of Oxygen = 2 x (1.01g) + 16.0 = 18.02 grams / mole for the molar mass of water H2O